lin_spring 2023-08-28 17:31:49

贪吃蛇

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# author: Wang dali time:2021年1月20日16:08:44
# python实现:贪吃蛇
"""
游戏玩法:回车开始游戏;空格暂停游戏/继续游戏;方向键/wsad控制小蛇走向
"""

# 注:因为在列表中需要频繁添加和删除元素,所以用deque容器代替列表;是因为deque具有高效的插入和删除效率
# 初始化蛇,长度为3,放置在屏幕左上角;
# 导包
import random
import sys
import time
import pygame
from pygame.locals import *
from collections import deque

'''思路:用列表存储蛇的身体;用浅色表示身体,深色背景将身体凸显出来;
蛇的移动:仔细观察,是:身体除头和尾不动、尾部消失,头部增加,所以,新添加的元素放在列表头部、删除尾部元素;
游戏结束判定策略:超出边界;触碰到自己的身体:蛇前进的下一格子为身体的一部分(即在列表中)。'''

# 基础设置
Screen_Height = 480
Screen_Width = 600
Size = 20  # 小方格大小
Line_Width = 1
# 游戏区域的坐标范围
Area_x = (0, Screen_Width // Size - 1)  # 0是左边界,1是右边界 #注:python中//为整数除法;/为浮点数除法
Area_y = (0, Screen_Height // Size - 1)
# 食物的初步设置
# 食物的分值+颜色
Food_Style_List = [(10, (255, 100, 100)), (20, (100, 255, 100)), (30, (100, 100, 255))]
# 整体颜色设置
Light = (100, 100, 100)
Dark = (200, 200, 200)
Black = (0, 0, 0)
Red = (200, 30, 30)
Back_Ground = (40, 40, 60)


# 文本输出格式设置
def Print_Txt(screen, font, x, y, text, fColor=(255, 255, 255)):
    # font.render参数意义:.render(内容,是否抗锯齿,字体颜色,字体背景颜色)
    Text = font.render(text, True, fColor)
    screen.blit(Text, (x, y))


# 初始化蛇
def init_snake():
    snake = deque()
    snake.append((2, Area_y[0]))
    snake.append((1, Area_y[0]))
    snake.append((0, Area_y[0]))
    return snake


# 食物设置
# 注意需要对食物出现在蛇身上的情况进行判断
def Create_Food(snake):
    """
    注:randint 产生的随机数区间是包含左右极限的,
    也就是说左右都是闭区间的[1, n],能取到1和n。
    而 randrange 产生的随机数区间只包含左极限,
    也就是左闭右开的[1, n),1能取到,而n取不到。randint
    产生的随机数是在指定的某个区间内的一个值,
    而 randrange 产生的随机数可以设定一个步长,也就是一个间隔。
    """
    food_x = random.randint(Area_x[0], Area_x[1])  # 此处有疑问
    food_y = random.randint(Area_y[0], Area_y[1])
    # 如果食物出现在蛇上,重来;
    while (food_x, food_y) in snake:
        food_x = random.randint(Area_x[0], Area_x[1])
        food_y = random.randint(Area_y[0], Area_y[1])
    return food_x, food_y


# 食物风格
def Food_Style():
    return Food_Style_List[random.randint(0, 2)]  # 返回随机的分值和颜色


def main():
    pygame.init()
    screen = pygame.display.set_mode((Screen_Width, Screen_Height))  # 初始化一个准备显示的窗口或屏幕
    pygame.display.set_caption('贪吃蛇')  # Set the caption
    # 得分字体设置
    font1 = pygame.font.SysFont("SimHei", 24)
    # GO字体设置
    font2 = pygame.font.SysFont("SimHei", 72)
    fWidth, fHeight = font2.size('GAME OVER')
    # 程序bug修复:如果蛇在向右移动,快速点击分别施加向下、向左的命令,向下的命令会被覆盖,只有向左的命令被接受,直接GameOver
    # b变量为了防止这个情况发生
    b = True
    # 蛇
    snake = init_snake()
    # 食物
    food = Create_Food(snake)
    food_style = Food_Style()
    # 方向控制
    pos = (1, 0)
    # 启动游戏相关变量初始化
    game_over = True  # 结束标志 # 是否开始,当start = True,game_over = True 时,才显示 GAME OVER
    game_start = False  # 开始标志
    score = 0  # 得分
    oriSpeed = 0.3  # 蛇初始速度
    speed = oriSpeed  # 蛇速度
    last_move_time = None
    pause = False  # 暂停
    while True:
        for event in pygame.event.get():
            if event.type == QUIT:
                sys.exit()
            elif event.type == KEYDOWN:
                if event.key == K_RETURN:
                    if game_over:
                        game_start = True
                        game_over = False
                        b = True
                        snake = init_snake()
                        food = Create_Food(snake)
                        food_style = Food_Style()
                        pos = (1, 0)
                        # 得分
                        score = 0
                        last_move_time = time.time()
                elif event.key == K_SPACE:
                    if not game_over:
                        pause = not pause
                # 以下为防止蛇在向右移动时按向左键,导致GameOver
                elif event.key in (K_UP, K_w):
                    if b and not pos[1]:
                        pos = (0, -1)
                        b = False
                elif event.key in (K_DOWN, K_s):
                    if b and not pos[1]:
                        pos = (0, 1)
                        b = False
                elif event.key in (K_LEFT, K_a):
                    if b and not pos[0]:
                        pos = (-1, 0)
                        b = False
                elif event.key in (K_RIGHT, K_d):
                    if b and not pos[0]:
                        pos = (1, 0)
                        b = False
        # 填充背景色
        screen.fill(Back_Ground)
        # 画网格线、竖线
        for x in range(Size, Screen_Width, Size):
            pygame.draw.line(screen, Black, (x, Area_y[0] * Size), (x, Screen_Height), Line_Width)
        # 画网格线、横线
        for y in range(Area_y[0] * Size, Screen_Height, Size):
            pygame.draw.line(screen, Black, (0, y), (Screen_Width, y), Line_Width)
        # 蛇的爬行过程
        if not game_over:
            curTime = time.time()
            if curTime - last_move_time > speed:
                if not pause:
                    b = True
                    last_move_time = curTime
                    next_s = (snake[0][0] + pos[0], snake[0][1] + pos[1])
                    # 如果吃到了食物
                    if next_s == food:
                        snake.appendleft(next_s)
                        score += food_style[0]
                        speed = oriSpeed - 0.03 * (score // 100)
                        food = Create_Food(snake)
                        food_style = Food_Style()
                    else:
                        # 在区域内
                        if Area_x[0] <= next_s[0] <= Area_x[1] and Area_y[0] <= next_s[1] <= Area_y[1] \
                                and next_s not in snake:
                            snake.appendleft(next_s)
                            snake.pop()
                        else:
                            game_over = True
        # 画食物
        if not game_over:
            """
            rect(Surface,color,Rect,width=0)
            第一个参数指定矩形绘制到哪个Surface对象上
            第二个参数指定颜色
            第三个参数指定矩形的范围(left,top,width,height)
            第四个参数指定矩形边框的大小(0表示填充矩形)
    
            例如绘制三个矩形:
    
                pygame.draw.rect(screen, BLACK, (50, 50, 150, 50), 0)
                pygame.draw.rect(screen, BLACK, (250, 50, 150, 50), 1)
                pygame.draw.rect(screen, BLACK, (450, 50, 150, 50), 10)
                """
        # 避免 GAME OVER 的时候把 GAME OVER 的字给遮住了
        pygame.draw.rect(screen, food_style[1], (food[0] * Size, food[1] * Size, Size, Size), 0)
        # 画蛇
        for s in snake:
            pygame.draw.rect(screen, Dark, (s[0] * Size + Line_Width, s[1] * Size + Line_Width,
                                            Size - Line_Width * 2, Size - Line_Width * 2), 0)

        Print_Txt(screen, font1, 30, 7, f'速度:{score // 100}')
        Print_Txt(screen, font1, 450, 7, f'得分:{score}')
        # 画GameOver
        if game_over:
            if game_start:
                # print('GameOver')
                Print_Txt(screen, font2, (Screen_Width - fWidth) // 2, (Screen_Height - fHeight) // 2,
                          'GAME OVER', Red)
        pygame.display.update()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

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